Doctors generally begin by treating epilepsy with medication. If medications don't treat the condition, doctors may propose surgery or another type of treatment.
Most people with epilepsy can become seizure-free by taking one anti-seizure medication, which is also called anti-epileptic medication. Others may be able to decrease the frequency and intensity of their seizures by taking a combination of medications.
Many children with epilepsy who aren't experiencing epilepsy symptoms can eventually discontinue medications and live a seizure-free life. Many adults can discontinue medications after two or more years without seizures. Your doctor will advise you about the appropriate time to stop taking medications.
Finding the right medication and dosage can be complex. Your doctor will consider your condition, frequency of seizures, your age and other factors when choosing which medication to prescribe. Your doctor will also review any other medications you may be taking, to ensure the anti-epileptic medications won't interact with them.
Your doctor likely will first prescribe a single medication at a relatively low dosage and may increase the dosage gradually until your seizures are well-controlled.
Anti-seizure medications may have some side effects. Mild side effects include:
Loss of bone density
Loss of coordination
Memory and thinking problems
More-severe but rare side effects include:
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors
Inflammation of certain organs, such as your liver
To achieve the best seizure control possible with medication, follow these steps:
Take medications exactly as prescribed.
Always call your doctor before switching to a generic version of your medication or taking other prescription medications, over-the-counter drugs or herbal remedies.
Never stop taking your medication without talking to your doctor.
Notify your doctor immediately if you notice new or increased feelings of depression, suicidal thoughts, or unusual changes in your mood or behaviors.
Tell your doctor if you have migraines. Doctors may prescribe one of the anti-epileptic medications that can prevent your migraines and treat epilepsy.
At least half the people newly diagnosed with epilepsy will become seizure-free with their first medication. If anti-epileptic medications don't provide satisfactory results, your doctor may suggest surgery or other therapies. You'll have regular follow-up appointments with your doctor to evaluate your condition and medications.
Neurosurgeons performing epilepsy surgery
When medications fail to provide adequate control over seizures, surgery may be an option. With epilepsy surgery, a surgeon removes the area of your brain that's causing seizures.
Doctors usually perform surgery when tests show that:
Your seizures originate in a small, well-defined area of your brain
The area in your brain to be operated on doesn't interfere with vital functions such as speech, language, motor function, vision or hearing
Although many people continue to need some medication to help prevent seizures after successful surgery, you may be able to take fewer drugs and reduce your dosages.
In a small number of cases, surgery for epilepsy can cause complications such as permanently altering your thinking (cognitive) abilities. Talk to your surgeon about his or her experience, success rates, and complication rates with the procedure you're considering.